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Recognition and identification

 
Forms, patterns and types
The range of colours and compositions found in kilims is enormous, from intricate designs in natural, undyed wool to simple, vividly coloured geometric patterns. Kilim owners are often able to trace the origins of their rugs back to a particular tribe, area or town, and many styles can be clearly and easily identified once you know what to look for. The great charm of kilims is that you do not need to be a learned rug expert or academic to be able to spot certain characteristics and pinpoint their origins.

The exact sources of many types are still far from clear, and are debated hotly by collectors, dealers and owners alike. In the Middle East and Central Asia, history is enshrined in the oral tradition of tribal folklore, and few tribes have enjoyed peace and stability for any lenght of time - a situation which militates against a rigid and academic approach.

This chapter will begin with a look at ways of interpreting the ancient symbols and motifs found on kilims, and with a description of the more unusual forms, such as prayer rugs, bags and runners, that are sometimes available in the West. Finally, there is a comprehensive guide to every major kilim type, starting in Anatolia and moving east towards Afghanistan, following the zig-zag path of the ancient trade routes, describing the colours, patterns and materials used in antique, old and new rugs from all the main areas of production.

Motifs and symbolism
The opening words of th Koran are 'There is no God but God'- everything in Islam derives from God and everything represents him, with the result that symbolism in Islamic art is subjective and implicit, and is open to many interpretations. It is certain that many of the symbols that are commonly used in kilims pre-date Islam by many centuries, going back to the very origins of flatweaves in pre- Islamic Central Asia, and to the Animistic and Shamanistic traditions and beliefs of the early pastoral nomads in the southern steppes.
The rise of the Islamic faith brought strictures against many of the ancient images used in all forms of art and crafts. The belief that only God can create a living thing was strictly enforcd, and the idolatry of early Animistic beliefs was rigorously suppressed. However, representational art was not forbidden by the Koran, only idolatry, so the dividing line between forbidden and acceptable images was, as always, indistinct.

Weavers avoided the taboo of reproducing the animate, but still incorporated pre-lslamic symbols that had been in use for generations, passed down like folk-tales.
Such symbols have survived the test of time, and formed a language of their own. There is no representation of the Deity in Islam, either in the form of the written word, or through the depiction of people (man being made in God's image). An early Christian tapestry might show God, or the disciples, or tell a story of war and heroism, and contain lifelike images of flowers, trees and animals. The textile would recreate light, shade and a degree of perspective and would attempt to disguise its own form and structure by presenting an illusory pictorial reality.

Not so an Islamic textile. In Islamic art some figurative forms, human and animal, are permitted, but in many cases it is considered disrespectful to walk over them, thus precluding their use in knotted rugs and kilims.

For the tribal weavers, however, connections with their natural environment, with their animals and with their family groups are very strong and deeply rooted, and will override religious taboo, so that recognizable objects are depicted in their rugs, but these will never be seen to form part of a complete, pseudo-realistic picture. Art for art's sake is a concept alien to Islam, but kilims are practical as well as decorative, so they are of a high order within the definition of Islamic art.

The motifs and designs on a kilim often hold the key to its age and origins, and can develop out of many different influences and disciplines - for instance, the different weaving techniques often determine the style of the motifs used. Slitweave produces abstract, stepped or crenellated patterns, usually diamond-shaped or triangular; cicim and zilli produce geometric, brocaded 'medallions' in the field of the rug; weft- faced patterning gives a narrow band of geometric and floral patterns across the width of the rug, and soumak is able to produce flowing patterns, representing recognizable images with some accuracy. Kilim weavers have, over the generations, developed ways of combining weaving techniques to achieve more complicated and elaborate designs.
There are two factors other than religion that influence the designs that a weaver will choose for her kilim. One is the discipline of the weaving techniques themselves, which produce mostly abstract patterns; the other is the natural environment in which the weaver lives, and from which she will adapt motifs to represent lakes, rivers, flowers, petals, trees and leaves, or domestic animals (sheep, goats and camels), wild animals and insects (snakes, scorpions and spiders). She will incorporate images from her own household, such as a kettle, teapot, ewer, comb, beater or lamp, as well as, more recently, objects of Western influence, including cars and bikes and, most recently, even helicopters and automatic rifles.

Knotted carpets and kilims share many symbols and design elements, despite the complete dissimilarity in their weaving techniques. The Anatolian motif 'elibelinde' (meaning 'hand on hip') is seen frequently on both flatweave and pile rugs, as are the 'gol' (lake) and 'gui' (flower). It is difficult to decide whether these motifs first appeared on kilims and were then transferred to knotted carpets, or vice- versa, although quite probably their first origins were in flatweaves. Some motifs, however, certainly originated on knotted carpets and were later used by kilim weavers, such as the flower and leaf patterns that are common to north Persian kilims and knotted rugs alike.
Symbols used in all forms of Asian and Islamic art hold a particular fascination for the West, and there is always a good deal of speculation as to their meaning.

Very often, an original form representing an animate object has evolved through generations of weaving into a stylized pattern. The Western interpretation of this stylized motif is easily misdirected since it calls for a thorough understanding of the concepts of the ancient weavers. Westerners should guard against romanticizing notions of ethnic symbolism and religious significance, which often confuse the theology and images of very different cultures. This is further complicated by the various languages, and religious and ethnic origins of the people in Anatolia, Persia and Central Asia. Over the years many of the original interpretations of a motif have changed or been forgotten, different interpretations of the same motif have arisen because of particular local beliefs, and similar motifs are often given different names in different areas.

Another problem is the tendency for Western eyes to see any and all geometric designs in flatweaves as stylizations or corruptions of an original curvilinear and more representational form. Many of the patterns are just geometric forms which have been given descriptive names by which they can be easily identified. Such names have become part of the language of the weavers and later been misinterpreted as signifying an original representational motif. To give an example: the motif used on many Central Asian and Turkoman kilim borders, the 'tree', is a convenient geometric pattern which complies
with all the requisites of slitweave it has short slits and a stepped, crenellated design. It is not a representation of a tree, but it does resemble one, vaguely, and so it is convenient to give it a name by which it can be easily identified and described. More complex, and intriguing, examples of this are the so-called 'lover's quarrel' and 'pair of birds'motifs, or the double-hooked 'ram's horns' and 'camel's neck' symbols.

A pattern or design can also be given different names and interpretations in different regions. The narrow guard strip frequently used on many kilims to separate the field from its major borders is colloquially known as a 'ladder'. The same feature, when seen on Turkoman carpets from Central Asia, is known as 'camel's teeth'. The boteh is a very common design element frequently referred to as a hook, curl, peacock or bird's head, and the 'hand motif', sometimes identified as the signature of a particular weaver, is often said to be a representation of the five pillars of Islam, or the prophet Mohammed and his four Caliphs, or the hand of Fatima.

Perhaps the most familiar motif used on kilims and knotted rugs is the 'Tree of Life'. Closer to the true nature of symbolism, this Tree of Life has multiple interpretations and meanings, such as the presence of water in desert lands, or the family tree, with the 'father' trunk and the 'child' branches. Another genuinely symbolic motif is the talismanic evil eye, or 'nazarlik', used to deflect evil and to balance the adverse effects of other motifs on the kilim, such as the spider or scorpion.

On many modern kilims, made in the last thirty years or so, ancient motifs have been misrepresented, or given a new twist, because the weaver has not been aware of the origins of the design she is using. Modern weavers often work from 'cartoons' or pictures of old rugs, recreating them for an enthusiastic Western market. Original motifs will be modified in this process to suit a pre-ordained shape or weaving technique, and so the evolution of the ancient design continues under modern conditions.

Unusual forms
Prayer kilims The devout Muslim must wash his hands, face and feet, find a 'pure' surface and prostrate himself in prayer five times a day. The prayer kilim, with its distinctive mihrab or 'prayer niche' composition, is ideal as a small, transportable and clean surface that may be laid on the ground, with the top of the mihrab pointing to Mecca. It must be said that any clean floor mat, kilim or carpet can be used for prayer, but the mihrab design provides a specific focus and a link with Islamic spiritual traditions.

But even the mihrab symbol can be variously interpreted. Its origins can be traced to the arch that is found at the centre of the wall that faces Mecca in all mosques, and prayer kilims are therefore sometimes used as mosque door hangings and decorations.
Prayer kilims are found throughout Anatolia, Kurdistan, Khorasan and west Afghan is tan. They form an important part of the weaver's dowry and are often woven for the head of a family or as a gift to the local mosque. Single-arch prayer kilims are of a common size, about feet by 3 feet, but the shapes of the mihrab vary enormously. There are, at one extreme, elaborate architectural forms supported by columns, often with ornate lamp and tree decorations, such as can be seen in central Anatolian examples.

These contrast with the simplified and almost unnoticeable mihrabs of the west Afghanistan prayer kilims. Kilims featuring multiple arches, known as 'saf', are rare and exclusive to Anatolia. Their large size, about twelve or fourteen feet long with up to seven niches in horizontal or vertical rows, implies a family use or a decorative function.

Soifral and rukorsi
These are distinctively shaped kilims, largely woven by Kurdish and Balouch tribes. Soffrai, in Persian, means 'small rug'. They take the form of small runners, above five feet in length and about one-and-a-half feet wide, or squares used as eating cloths. Both types are easily identifiable by their zig-zag motifs, penetrating two sides of a plain, madder red or camel-hair field. The borders are frequently of soumak or knotted work, and these delicate techniques perfectly complement the plain ground. Soffrai runners are woven by the Balouch as 'fill-in' rugs, to lay around the edges of a large room-sized carpet. Rukorsi kilims, about four feet square, are used as covers for charcoal braziers or bread ovens. In the depths of winter, layers of felt topped by a rukorsi kilim make a warm family blanket.

Bags
Tapestry-woven bags are made alongside kilims for practical everyday, but very different uses. Nomadic peoples and settled tribes in villages have little use for furniture, except for low chairs and tin or wooden chests, so flatwoven bags are used for storage and transport. Double bags, known as hurgin or khoorjeen in Persian, and heybe in Turkish, are slung over the shoulder as a small pannier for vegetables and foodstuffs; larger bags, up to three feet square, are set across the backs of camels and donkeys as saddle packs. Bedding and clothing bags include the cradle-like maffrash of Anatolia and the Caucasus, and the pairs of juvals from Khorasan and Afghan Turkestan. Similar to, but smaller than juvals, the Turkoman jaloor bags have long tassels and, like the juvals, are hung on the frame of the yurt for storage. Salt bags, namak donneh, are most distinctive in shape, with a long narrow neck that may be folded over to seal the bag and preserve the valuable contents from moisture.

Persia
If oriental carpets of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were invariably described as 'Turkish', then 'Persian' surely stands today as a much abused term, and erroneous synonym for all types of carpets and rugs, But there is in fact, no real problem in identifying authentic Persian kilims, since their varied tribal ancestry has resulted in sharp colours and strong, abstract patterns, quite different from the fine silk carpets produced in urban workshops, packed with floral and other figurative designs, and available everywhere in the West.

The origins of the Persian tribes can be traced back to the greatest empires of Asia. Persia has been ruled by Achaemenidae, the Greeks, the Sassanian kings, The Arabs, The Mongols and the Turkomen, finally returning to local control with the Safavid dynasties. All have left their mark by way of their tribal enclaves scattered about modern-day Iran. The distribution, over the centuries, of these immigrants from areas such as Central Asia and the Caucasus was thrown into disarray by the Persian monarchs of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Whole tribes were forcibly uprooted from one end of Persia and settled in some remote border district for political and military reasons. The confusion caused by the cultural mixtures and the free movement of tribes across frontiers until relatively recently means that the exact origins of some Persian kilims remain a matter of calculated guesswork.

Most of the finest Persian kilims that can be found today were woven in the nineteeenth and early twentieth centuries by Kurdish and Turkic tribes before the repressive regime of Reza Shah. Kilims were woven for traditional family and domestic purposes within the villages and encampments of the areas many tribes; the highest quality floral patterned kilims were produced in workshops in Senna, the capital of Kurdistan.

The policies of the Pahiavi regime, established in 1925, were directly aimed at reducing the political powers of the tribes of Persia, tribes that were fast dwindling to a minority amongst the Persians of the towns and cities. Tribal leaders were imprisoned, firearms confiscated and nomadic groups forcibly settled on marginal lands that could not support them, or their flocks. For fifteen years after the overthrow of Reza Shah in 1941, the tribespeople enjoyed a return to self-government and traditional lifestyles. After 1956 and to this day the governments of Iran have continued with a tribal settlement and emasculation programme that has attempted to create a homogeneous Iranian society. These actions and the social changes that have occured because of Westernization of the country have all but destroyed the forces behind the traditional production of kilims, although they continue to be produced in Persia today on a much smaller scale.
 
Before the Islamic revolution, and as with Anatolian production, there was a strong Western commercial and scholarly pressure to re-introduce vegetable dyes and traditional patterns. Much of this work was concentrated on the weaving of the Qashqai of southern Persia.

Senna Senna, now known as Sanandaj, is the capital of the district called Kurdistan and gives its name to a group of finely woven kilims of the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The fine floral patterns were inspired by the embroideries and brocades of the Safavid period and most were workshop produced for sophisticated urban demand.

Senna kilims are small in size and finely woven in slitweave and eccentric weft technique, with cotton warps and woollen wefts; motifs are frequently enhanced with metal or silk threads. The designs often consist of small clusters of flowers, boteh, running vines, bees and a central diamond cluster of small flowers known as a Herati pattern. Persia is not known for its prayer kilims, the sole exception being those made in Senna, with their distinctive bulbous mihrab. The central field of Senna kilims is flanked by a series of major and minor borders of leaf, stem and other floral motifs. The colours are predominantly blue, red and white.

Bijar
These kilims are woven in the villages and nomadic camps of Kurdistan and are often naive copies of Senna work. The weave is of coarse cotton and wool, the colours are bright, and small animal and human figures are often depicted in the field, with charming results.

Shahsavan
(flow known as Ilsavan) The Ilsavan are a confederation of the most important of the Turkic tribes that are found on the north-west Persian border with the Caucasus. Some of the tribal groups are semi-nomadic, moving from the plains of Mughan to the summer pastures in the mountains west of Ardabil. Shahsavan means lovers of the Shah', indicating their mercenary attachment to the Safavid rulers, and these Turkic tribes are descended from the Seijuk Turks of Central Asia. Members of this confederation include those Caucasian Turks who fled south from the Russians in the late nineteenth century.
The Ilsavan are best known for their ceremonial horse blankets, woven in soumak technique and decorated with horses, deer and birds. Kilims from this area are similar in design and scale to the southern Caucasian production, differing only in the raw materials used, and in certain design details. Ilsavan kilims are woven with dark, dry and coarse wool, a contrast to the fabled soft, fine and ivory-coloured woollen yarn of the Caucasus. Persian influences are evident in the random scattering of stylized birds, flowers and human figures in the field of the kilim.

Zarand
Kilims woven between the villages of Saveh, Zarand and Qazvin in central Persia are collectively known as the Zarand production. They are often the work of elements of the Turkic Ilsavan who have settled in the area in large numbers.

Zarand kilims are all long, narrow and durable, woven with cotton warps and a heavy woolen weft. Small slitweave and eccentric weft work are the techniques most commonly used. Patterns are stylized and floral, with running vine and trefoil on the inner and outer borders; colours are muted blues, creams and browns. More often than not the floral motifs group to form a diamond grid pattern, or two or three medallions.

Veramin and Garmsar
Kilims woven in this region, some 35 miles south-east of Tehran, have diverse tribal origins, for the towns of Veramin and Garmsar straddle the east-west trading and migration routes of Central Persia. Arabs, Kurds, Ilsavan, Lurs, Qashqai and many other tribes have mingled here, and have settled and established an important kilim-weaving district. Veramin and Garmsar kilims are heavy, tightly woven and large in size, with cotton warps or warps and wefts of the local dark and relatively coarse wool. Selvedges are distinctive, forming ridges of dark, cabled warps to the sides of the kilims; weaving techniques include delicate slitweave, lines of weft-faced patterning with 'S' and rosette designs, and weft wrapping to highlight the designs.

Compositions include horizontal or diagonally offset bands of motifs or a field of interlocking designs that converge to dazzling effect. Garmsar and Veramin kilims have a colour palette of brilliant reds and blues, and unusual greens and yellows on a dark ground.

Qashqai
The nomadic Qashqai of the Fars district of south-west Persia are well known for their traditionally woven kilims. The tribe's origins can be traced back to the sixteenth century, when its people formed part of the Turkic hordes who invaded from ihe north. As a result, some Qashqai kilim patterns can be directly related to those of the Caucasus.
Once famed for their long annual migration from their winter quarters by the Persian gulf to their summer pastures in the Zagros mountains, the Qashqai have suffered heavily under the repressive policies of the Persian governments since 1925. In consequence, most of the best rugs were woven before the Pahlavi regime, and these older Qashqai kilims are particularly exciting and satisfying to live with.

Woven during migrations, or at resting-places, Qashqai kilims often display striking variations and shifts in pattern and colour. Only a small amount of dyed yarn can be carried by the nomads at any one time, so successive batches of wool for the same kilim have to be dyed en route, hence the colour variations. The ground looms upon which they are woven are often packed up and moved while weaving is in progress, so that the patterns are interestingly varied.

Bakhtiari
The Bakhtiari tribes were, until recently, a nomadic group. They migrated from the plains of west-central Persia into and over the Zagros mountains. Their origins are obscure and ancient, their language is Persian and only the inaccessibility of their homelands has ensured the survival of their cultural traditions. Bakhtiari kilims are, therefore, original in design, retaining their tribal identity and purity.

Weaving techniques are unusual. Double interlock is used, with cotton warps and woollen wefts, resulting in one-sided, stiff and strong kilims. The rugs are long and narrow, with clear colours and bright contrasts of yellows, blues, reds and oranges. Designs most commonly consist of a grid pattern of boxes in the field, or a pattern of boteh or lozenge shapes, surrounded by several concentric borders. The ends of the kilims are finished in bands of weft-faced patterning. Horse covers are woven in soumak technique with striking compositions of animal motifs and bands of colour.

Khorasan This region in the north-east of Persia, bordering Afghanistan and Soviet
Central Asia, is home to the indigenous Balouch and Turkoman tribes as well as groups of Kurds. These were displaced from their homelands in the Caucasus and Kurdistan by the Ottoman Turks in the sixteenth century and eventually forced to settle in Khorasan to
defend Persia against the raiding Uzbeks from Central Asia.

The Kurds weave large brocade kilims with stripes and lattice patterns in dark blues and reds, as well as heavily brocaded and robust bags. It is often difficult to distinguish these Kurdish weaves from the work of related tribes further west.

Many of the Turkomen of Khorasan are exiles from Soviet Central Asia, such as the Tekke and Yomut tribes who fled from Imperial Russia in the nineteenth century, and from the Soviets in the twentieth. Their kilims are distinguished by their deep red ground onto which are brocaded the characteristic Turkoman guts. Flatweaving is confined to large dowry brocades, jaloors and pairs of juvals. There are also groups of Balouch peoples living in Khorasan, thought to be of ancient Persian stock form the central Kirman region, displaced east and north-east by the Turkic invasions of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The Balouch who inhabit this borderland between Iran and Afghanistan are known as the Rukhshanis, and they produce many kilims commonly identified as Balouch. By contrast, few kilims are made by the eastern Balouch tribes, the Brahuis of the deserts of Pakistan Balouchistan.
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