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Carpet weaving in provinces

 

Northern and western provinces

Iran, has long been known as a fount of beautiful and legendary carpets. Her centers of carpet weaving, since ancient times, have produced thousands of rugs and carpets, many of them precious and valuable.

This does not mean, that all over this vast country of 1650000 square kilometres, that all carpets are woven the same way. In a great area of this country, for climatic, demographic and economical reasons the art, or as it is called today, the industry has developed very little.

In this brief introduction, we study a general view of carpet weaving in Iran then we begin to explain in detail the centre of carpet weaving in different cities.

In the central and south eastern part of Iran there are two uninhabited deserts that cover a vast part of country. In these deserts, particularly in the central area, there is no living creature and no sign of carpet weaving. On the other hand on the border of these deserts there are famous cities like Nain, Ghom, Yazd, Ravar, and Birjand, in which the finest carpets are made.

Among the inhabitants of cities and villages bordering the Caspian shores, carpet weaving is not very popular. The reason for this may probably be the fact that due to the national resources and tourism in the provinces of Ghilan and Mazandaran the standard of life is relatively high and therefore most of the men in this area are unwilling to weave carpets.

Moreover, the energetic and active women of this region are continuously busy in the rice, tea and tobacco fields and the orange groves. In addition, the slopes of the high Albors mountain that are always covered with snow, hinder the grazing of the sheep, thus causing a shortage of raw materials such as wool.

As a result there is no need for carpet weaving. The only cities where runners and rugs of medium quality are woven are Kelar-Dasht, Babol and Amol. The designs of Kelar-Dasht carpets are generally geometrical and the colours are red and black, the knot being Ghiordes and pile is of medium height.

Carpet weaving along the coast of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea is almost non existent and if one does find carpets, these are often shoddy and of an inferior quality.

The scarcity of the population, the lack of pastures for grazing and nourishing sheep, employment in the oil industry, fishing, smuggling goods across the frontiers and emigration to the nearby Arab States is the cause for the shortage of any carpet industry in this area.

In the map of carpet weaving in Iran there are two coloured areas, dark and light green. In the darker green area, the centre of carpet weaving is more concentrated and is more important whereas, in the lighter green area carpet weaving is prevalent but not as concentrated as in the darker green areas.

Looking at this map we realise that although great numbers of cities and ports in Iran while important in the political and industrial field, they are outside of the green colour areas, such as Orumiyeh, Ahwaz, Abadan, Dezful, Sary, Khorram-Shahr, Bushehr, Bandar Abbas and etc.

In our method of studying the centres of carpet weaving in the provinces of Iran, irrespective of their political or industrial importance, we concentrate solely on the history, artistic values, technical elaboration and commercial values, hand pile production.

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